The central theme of my research program, Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy Innovations (POPi), is the study of drug therapy with the goal of improving human health and quality of life.

I am particularly interested in developing models for evaluating drug effectiveness, medication use models designed to improve patient health, and effective surveillance systems to improve the safe use of medication.

I have a particular clinical interest in pediatric medicine, with specific emphases on asthma and the epidemiology and clinical management of adverse drug reactions.

Another area of interest is the translation of knowledge to aid evidence-based drug policy development. POPi contributes to solving the international drug policy crisis on two levels: the public policy level (federal and provincial), and the clinical policy level. In this way the needs of government are served to manage drug budgets, the needs of clinicians to improve patient care, and the public need to understand and improve the effectiveness, safety and cost effectiveness of drugs.

phone: 6048752179

Madadi P, Amstutz U, Rieder M, Ito S, Fung V, Hwang S, Turgeon J, Michaud V, Koren G, Carleton BC, Recommendations Group CC. Clinical practice guideline: CYP2D6 genotyping for safe and efficacious codeine therapy. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Nov; 20(3): e369-e396. PMID: 24214521 [SA] [PI]

Camp PG, Norton S, Goldman R, Shajari S, Smith MA, Heathcote S, Carleton BC. Emergency Department visits for children with acute asthma: Discharge instructions, parental plans and follow through of care – A prospective study. CJEM. 2013 June. (accepted) [SA] [PI]

Kelly LE, Chaudhry SA, Rieder MJ, ‘t Jong G, Moretti ME, Lausman A, Ross C, Berger H, Carleton B, Hayden MR, Madadi P, Gideon K. A clinical tool for reducing central nervous system depression among neonates exposed to codeine through breast milk. PLOS ONE. 2013 Jul;8(7):e70073. PMID: 23922910 [MC] [PI]

Siden H, Carleton BC, Oberlander T. Physician variability in treating pain/irritability of unknown origin in children with severe neurological impairment. Pain Res Manag. 2013 July 24. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23885348 [SA] [PI]

Aminkeng F, Ross CJD, Rassekh SR, Brunham LR, Sistonen J, Dube MP, Ibrahim M, Nyambo TB, Omar SA, Froment A, Bodo JM, Tishkoff SA, Carleton BC, Hayden MR, the CPNDS Consortium. Higher Frequency of Genetic Variants Conferring Increased Risk for ADRs for Commonly Used Drugs Treating Cancer, AIDS and Tuberculosis in Persons of African Descent. Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23588107 [SA] [PI]

Pussegoda K, Ross CJ, Visscher H, Yazdanpanah M, Brooks B, Rassekh SR, Feroz-Zada Y, Dube MP, Carleton BC, Hayden MR; CPNDS Consortium. Replication of TPMT and ABCC3 genetic variants highly associated with cisplatin-induced hearing loss in children. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Aug;94(2):243-51. PMID: 23588304 [SA] [PI]

Visscher H, Ross CJ, Rassekh SR, Sandor GS, Caron HN, van Dalen EC, Kremer LC, van der Pal HJ, Rogers PC, Rieder MJ, Carleton BC, Hayden MR; the CPNDS Consortium. Validation of variants in SLC28A3 and UGT1A6 as genetic markers predictive of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013 Aug;60(8):1375-81. PMID: 23441093 [SA] [PI]

Lam J, Kelly L, Matok I, Ross CJ, Carleton BC, Hayden MR, Madadi P, Koren G. Putative association of ABCB1 2677G>T/A with oxycodone-induced central nervous system depression in breastfeeding mothers. Ther Drug Monit. 2013 Aug;35(4):466-472. PMID:23783165 [MC] [PI]

Amstutz U, Ross CJD, Castro-Pastrana LI, Rieder MJ, Shear NH, Hayden MR, Carleton BC. HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 as genetic markers for carbamazepine hypersensitivity in children. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jul;94(1):142-9. PMID: 23588310[SA] [PI]

Kowalec K, Carleton BC and Tremlett H. The potential role of pharmacogenomics in the prevention of serious adverse drug reactions in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 2013 Jul;2(3):183-192. [SA]

Shaw K, Amstutz U, Castro-Pastrana L, Loo TT, Ross CJ, Ito S, Rieder MJ, Maher M, MacLeod S, Koren G, Hayden MR, Carleton BC. Pharmacogenomic investigation of adverse drug reactions: the ADR prioritization tool, APT. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2013 June;20(2):e110-127. PMID: 23824325 [SA] [PI]

Madadi P, Sistonen J, Silverman G, Gladdy R, Ross CJ, Carleton BC, Carvalho JC, Hayden MR, Koren G. Life-threatening adverse events following therapeutic opioid administration in adults: Is pharmacogenetic analysis useful? Pain Res Manag. 2013 May-June;18(3):133-6. PMID: 23748253 [MC] [PI]

Rassekh R, Ross CJD, Carleton B, Hayden MR. Cancer pharmacogenomics in children: Research initiatives and progress to date. Pediatr Drugs, 2013 Apr;15(2):71-81. PMID: 23529868 [SA] [PI]

Zhang T, Smith MA, Camp PG, Carleton BC. High use of health services in patients with suboptimal asthma drug regimens: A population-based assessment in British Columbia, Canada. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Jul;22(7):744-51. PMID: 23559540 [SA] [PI]

Camp P, Zhang T, Smith A, Carleton B. The use of long-acting beta2-agonists as monotherapy in children and adults. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jan;20(1):e1-12. PMID: 23392793 [SA]

Kowalec K, Yoshida EM, Traboulsee A, Carleton BC and Tremlett H. Suspected autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis unmasked by interferon-beta in a multiple sclerosis patient. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2013 Jan;2(1):57-59. [SA]

Khetani JD, Madadi P, Sommer DD, Reddy D, Sistonen J, Ross CJ, Carleton BC, Hayden MR, Koren G. Apnea and oxygen desaturations in children treated with opioids after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatr Drugs. 2012 Dec;14(6):411-415. PMID: 23013460 [MC] [PI]

Etminan M, Jafari S, Carleton BC, FitzGerald JM. Beta-blocker use & COPD mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Pulm Med. 2012 Sept 4;12(1):48: 1471-2466-12-48. PMID: 22947076 [CA]

Househ M, Kushniruk A, Maclure M, Carleton BC, Cloutier-Fisher D. “Developing Virtual Communities to Support Drug Policy Knowledge Exchange: The Canadian Experience.” E-Health Communities and Online Self-Help Groups: Applications and Usage. IGI Global, 2012 Sept:279-302. Web. [CA]

Lam J, Matlow JN, Ross CJ, Hayden MR, Carleton BC, Madadi P. Postpartum maternal codeine therapy and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes: The devil is in the details. Ther Drug Monit. 2012 Aug;34(4):378-80. PMID: 22777151[SA] [PI]

Zhang T, Smith MA, Camp P, Shajari S, MacLeod S, Carleton BC. Prescription drug dispensing profiles for one million children: a population-based analysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;69(3):581-8. PMID:22791273 [SA] [PI]

Brunham LR, Lansberg PJ, Zhang L, Miao F, Carter C, Hovingh GK, Visscher H, Jukema JW, Stalenhoef AF, Ross CJ, Carleton BC, Kastelein JJ, Hayden MR. Differential effect of the rs4149056 variant in SLC01B1 on myopathy associated with simvastatin and atorvastatin. Pharmacogenomics J. 2012 Jun;12(3):233-7. PMID: 21243006 [CA]

Dionne F, Mitton C, Rassekh R, Brooks B, Ross CJ, Hayden MR, Carleton BC. Economic impact of a genetic test for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Pharmacogenomics J. 2012 Jun;12(3):205-13. PMID:21502965 [SA] [PI]

Visscher H, Ross CJ, Rassekh SR, Barhdadi A, Dube MP, Al-Saloos H, Sandor GS, Caron HN, van Dalen EC, Kremer LC, van der Pal HJ, Brown AM, Rogers PC, Phillips MS, Rieder MJ, Carleton BC, Hayden MR. Pharmacogenomic prediction of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in children. J Clin Oncol. 2012 May;30(1):1422-8. PMID: 2190010 [SA] [PI]

Kelly LE, Rieder M, van den Anker J, Malkin B, Ross CJ, Neely MN, Carleton BC, Hayden MR, Madadi P, Koren G. More codeine fatalities after tonsillectomy in North American children. Pediatrics. 2012 May;129(5):e1343-7. PMID: 22492761 [MC] [PI]

Shaw K, Amstutz U, Jimenez-Mendez R, Ross CJ, Carleton BC. Suspected opioid overdose case resolved by CYP2D6 genotyping. Ther Drug Monit. 2012 Apr;34(2):121-3. PMID: 22406651 [SA] [PI]

Sistonen J, Madadi P, Ross CJ, Yazdanpanah M, Lee JW, Landsmeer MLA, Nauta M, Carleton BC, Koren G, Hayden MR. Prediction of codeine toxicity in infants and their mothers using a novel combination of maternal genetic markers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Apr;91(4):692-9. PMID: 22398969 [SA] [PI]

Chawla J, Seear M, Zhang T, Smith A, Carleton B. Fifty years of pediatric asthma in developed countries: how reliable are the basic data sources? Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012 Mar;47(3):211-9. PMID: 21905263 [SA] [PI]

Lam J, Kelly L, Ciszkowski C, Landsmeer ML, Nauta M, Carleton BC, Hayden MR, Madadi P, Koren G. Central nervous system depression of neonates breastfed by mothers receiving oxycodone for postpartum analgesia. J Pediatr. 2012 Jan;160(1):33-7. PMID: 21880331 [MC] [PI]

Shaw K, Amstutz U, Carleton BC. Using pharmacogenetics to understand adverse drug reactions in children. Paediatr Child Health. 2011 Nov;16(9):537-8 PMID: 23115490 [SA] [PI]

Visscher H, Amstutz U, Sistonen J, Ross CJ, Hayden MR, Carleton BC. Pharmacogenomics of cardiovascular drugs and adverse effects in pediatrics. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;58(3):228-39. PMID: 21386709 [SA] [PI]

Joly Y, Koutrikas G, Ramos-Paque E, Zawati M, Gardy J, Hayden MR, Carleton BC. Diagnostic testing for vaccinomics: is the regulatory approval framework adequate? A comparison of Canada, the United States, and Europe. OMICS. 2011 Sep;15(9):597-605. PMID:21728814 [SA]

VanderVaart S, Berger H, Sistonen J, Madadi P, Matok I, Gijsen VM, de Wildt SN, Taddio A, Ross CJ, Carleton BC, Hayden MR, Koren G. CYP2D6 polymorphisms and codeine analgesia in postpartum pain management: a pilot study. Ther Drug Monit. 2011 Aug;33(4):425-32. PMID: 21743374 [MC]

Househ MS, Kushniruk AW, Maclure M, Carleton BC, Cloutier-Fisher D. Virtual knowledge production within a physician educational outreach program. KM&EL. 2011;3(1): 24-34. [CA]

Amstutz U, Carleton BC. Pharmacogenetic testing: time for clinical practice guidelines. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Jun;89(6):924-7. PMID: 21508939 [SA] [PI]

Pirmohamed M, Friedmann PS, Molokhia M, Loke YK, Smith C, Phillips E, La Grenade L, Carleton BC, Papaluca-Amati M, Demoly P, Shear NH. Phenotype standardization for immune-mediated drug-induced skin injury. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Jun;89(6):896-901. PMID: 21562486 [CA]

Castro-Pastrana LI, Carleton BC. Improving pediatric drug safety: need for more efficient clinical translation of pharmacovigilance knowledge. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;18:e76-88. PMID:21467599 [SA] [PI]

Castro-Pastrana LI, Ghannadan R, Rieder MJ, Dahlke E, Hayden M, Carleton BC. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions in children: an analysis of reports from the Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety (CPNDS). J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;18:e106-20. PMID:21467602 [SA] [PI]

Del Pozzo-Magana BR, Lazo-Langner A, Carleton B, Castro-Pastrana LI, Rieder MJ. A systematic review of treatment of drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in children. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;18:e121-33. PMID:21467603 [MC] [PI]

Ross CJ, Visscher H, Rassekh SR, Castro-Pastrana LI, Shereck E, Carleton B, Hayden MR. Pharmacogenomics of serious adverse drug reactions in pediatric oncology. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;18:e134-51. PMID:21467604 [SA] [PI]

Madadi P, Joly Y, Avard D, Chitayat DC, Smith MA, Ross CJD, Carleton BC, Hayden MR, Koren G. The communication of pharmacogenetic research results: participants weigh in on their informational needs in a pilot study. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;18:e152-5. PMID: 21467605 [SA] [PI]

Joly Y, Koutrikas G, Tasse A, Issa A, Carleton BC, Hayden M, Rieder MJ, Ramos-Paque E, Avard D. Regulatory approval for new pharmacogenomic tests: a comparative overview. Food Drug Law J. 2011 Feb;66(1):1-24. [MC]

Househ M, Kushniruk AW, Maclure MM, Carleton BC, Cloutier-Fisher D. The use of conferencing technologies to support drug policy group knowledge exchange processes: an action case approach. Int J Med Inform. 2011 Apr;80(4):251-61. PMID:21167772 [CA]

Househ MS, Kushniruk AW, Maclure M, Carleton B, Cloutier-Fisher D. Strengths and weaknesses of using conferencing technologies to support drug policy knowledge exchange. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2011;164:405-9 PMID:21335744 [MC]

Madadi P, Joly Y, Avard D, Chitayat DC, Smith MA, Ross CJD, Carleton BC, Hayden MR, Koren G. Communicating pharmacogenetic research results to breastfeeding mothers taking codeine: a pilot study of perceptions and benefits. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Dec;88(6):792-5. PMID: 20739920 [PI] [SA]

Carleton BC. Demonstrating utility of pharmacogenetics in pediatric populations: methodological considerations. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Dec;88(6):757-9. PMID: 21081946
Madadi P, Hildebrant D, Gong IY, Schwarz UI, Ciszkowski C, Ross CJD, Sistonen J, Carleton BC, Hayden MR, Lauwers AE, Koren G. Fatal hydrocodone overdose in child: pharmacogenetics and drug interactions. Pediatrics. 2010 Oct;126(4):e986-9 PMID: 20837591 [PI] [SA]

Loo TT, Ross CJD, Sistonen J, Visscher H, Madadi P, Koren G, Hayden MR, Carleton BC. Pharmacogenomics and active surveillance for serious adverse drug reactions in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2010 Sep;11(9):1269-85. PMID: 20860467 [SA] [PI]

Rogovik AL, Carleton BC, Solimano A, Goldman R. Palivizumab for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Can Fam Physician. 2010 Aug:56(8):769-72. PMID:20705882 [MC]

Ross CJ, Visscher H, Sistonen J, Brunham LR, Pussegoda K, Loo TT, Rieder MJ, Koren G, Carleton BC, Hayden MR. The Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety: a model for safety pharmacology. Thyroid. 2010 Jul;20(7):681-7 PMID:20578893 [PI] [SA]

Carleton BC. Gene-based warfarin dosing. Ther Drug Monit. 2010 Jun;32(3):332 PMID:20498559

Ito S, Carleton BC. Predictive genotype for carbamazepine-induced severe skin reactions. CMAJ. 2010 May 18;182(8):804. (Letter) PMID: 20479057[MC]

Sadatsafavi M, Lynd L, Marra C, Carleton BC, Tan WC, Sullivan S, FitzGerald JM. Direct health care costs associated with asthma in British Columbia. Can Respir J. 2010 March/April;17(2):74-80. PMID:20422063 [MC]

Prosser R, Carleton BC, Smith MA. The comorbidity burden of the treated asthma patient population in British Columbia. Chronic Dis Can. 2010 March;30(2): 46-55. PMID: 20302685 [PI] [SA]

Wiens MO, Son WK, Ross C, Hayden M, Carleton BC. Cocaine adulterant linked to neutropenia. CMAJ. 2010 Jan 12;182(1):57-9. PMID:19969562 [SA]

Jamieson B, Jain R, Carleton BC, Goldman R. Use of oseltamivir in children. Can Fam Physician. 2009 Dec;55(12):1199-201. PMID: 20008597[MC] [PI]

Zhang T, Carleton BC, Prosser RJ, Smith MA. The added burden of comorbidity in patients with asthma. J Asthma. 2009 Dec;46(10):1021-6. PMID:19995140 [PI] [SA]

Househ M, Kushniruk A, Cloutier-Fisher D, Carleton BC. Technology enabled knowledge exchange: development of a conceptual framework. J Med Syst. 2011 Aug;35(4):713-21 PMID:20703520 [MC]

Househ M, Kushniruk A, Carleton BC, Cloutier-Fisher D. A literature review on distance knowledge exchange in healthcare groups: what can we learn from the ICT literature. J Med Syst. 2011 Aug;35(4):639-46 PMID:20703525 [MC]

Househ M, Kushniruk A, Maclure M, Carleton BC, Cloutier-Fisher D. A case study examining the impacts of conferencing technologies in distributed healthcare groups. Healthc Q. 2009;12(4):112-5 PMID: 20057239 [MC]

Househ M, Kushniruk A, Maclure M, Carleton BC, Cloutier-Fisher D. A case study examining the impacts of conferencing technologies in distributed healthcare groups. ElectronicHealthcare. 2009;8(2):e10-3. PMID:20057239 [MC]

Ross CJ, Katzov-Eckert H, Dubé MP, Brooks B, Rassekh SR, Barhdadi A, Feroz-Zada Y, Visscher H, Brown AM, Rieder MJ, Rogers PC, Phillips MS, Carleton BC, Hayden MR; the CPNDS Consortium. Genetic variants in TPMT and COMT are associated with hearing loss in children receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. Nat Genet. 2009 Dec;41(12):1345-9. PMID:19898482 [PI] [SA]

Visscher H, Ross CJD, Dubé M-P, Brown AMK, Phillips, MS, Carleton BC, Hayden MR. Application of principal component analysis to pharmacogenomic studies in Canada. Pharmacogenomics J. 2009 Dec; 9(6):362-72. PMID:19652663 [PI]

Dormuth CR, Carney G, Carleton BC, Bassett K, Wright JM. Thiazolidinediones and fractures in men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Aug 10;169(15):1395-402. PMID:19667303 [MC]

Carleton BC, Poole RL, Smith MA, Leeder JS, Ghannadan R, Ross CJD, Philips MS, Hayden MR. Adverse drug reaction active surveillance: developing a national network in Canada’s children’s hospitals. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2009 Aug;18(8):713-21. PMID:19507171 [PI]

Wong E, Carleton BC, Wright DF, Smith MA, Verbeek L, Hildebrand CA, Stannard P, Vaillancourt R, Eliot-Miller P, Ross CJ, Hayden MR. Genotypic approaches to therapy in children (GATC): using information technology to improve drug safety. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2009;143:209-14. PMID:19380938 [PI] [SA]

Madadi P, Ross CJD, Hayden MR, Carleton BC, Gaedigk A, Leeder SJ, Koren G. Pharmacogenetics of neonatal opioid toxicity following maternal use of codeine during breastfeeding: a case-control study. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jan;85(1):31-5. PMID:18719619 [PI]

Armstrong K, Mitton C, Carleton BC, Shoveller J. Drug formulary decision-making in two regional health authorities in British Columbia, Canada. Health Policy. 2008 Dec;88(2-3):308-16. PMID:18508151 [MC]

Samii A, Carleton BC, Etminan M. Statin use and the risk of Parkinson disease: a nested case control study. J Clin Neurosci. 2008 Nov;15(11):1272-3. PMID:18823780 [PI] [MC]

Poole RL, Carleton BC. Medication errors: neonates, infants and children are the most vulnerable! J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2008;13:65-7. PMID:23055866 [SA]

Etminan M, Carleton BC, Samii A. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of Parkinson disease: a retrospective cohort study. J Clin Neurosci. 2008 May;15(5):576-7. PMID:18343119 [PI] [SA]

Tierney M, Manns B, Bassett K, Carleton BC, Conly JM, Evans MJ, Holbrook A, Mallery L, Man-Son-Hing M, McColl N, Nuebauer B, Peterson R, Quest D. Optimizing the use of prescription drugs in Canada through the Common Drug Review. Can Med Assoc J. 2008 Feb;178(4):432-5. PMID:18268271 [MC]

Mitchell B, Carleton BC, Smith MA, Prosser R, Brownell M, Kozyrskyj A. Trends in psychostimulant and antidepressant use by children in two Canadian provinces. Can J Psychiatry. 2008 March;53(3):152-9. PMID: 18441661 [SA]

Maclure M, Warren L, Willison D, Cassels A, Carleton BC. Camouflaged sampling and contacting of people from administrative databases: reaching target patients without knowing who they are. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2008 August;17(8):790-7. PMID:18615549 [SA]

Prosser RJ, Carleton BC, Smith MA. Identifying persons with treated asthma using administrative data: developing a case definition via latent class modeling. Health Serv Res. 2008 April ;43(2):733-54. PMID:18370976 [PI] [SA]

Ross CJD, Carleton BC, Warn DG, Stenton SB, Rassekh SR, Hayden MR. Genotypic approaches to therapy in childhood (GATC): a national active surveillance network to study the pharmacogenomics of severe adverse drug reactions in children. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1110:177-92. PMID:17911433 [PI] [SA]

Maclure M, Carleton BC, Schneeweiss S. Designed delays vs. rigorous pragmatic trials: lower carat gold standards can produce relevant drug evaluations. Med Care. 2007;45(10 Supl 2):S44-9. PMID:17909382 [PI] [SA]

Ross CJD, Katzov H, Carleton BC, Hayden MR. Pharmacogenomics and its implications for autoimmune disease. J Autoimmun. 2007 Mar-May;28(2-3):122-8. [PI] [SA]

Carleton BC, Smith MA, Gelin MN, Heathcote SC. Paediatric adverse drug reaction reporting: understanding and future directions. Can J Clin Pharmacol. Winter 2007;14(1):e45-57. [PI] [SA]

Norton SP, Pusic MV, Taha F, Heathcote S, Carleton BC. Effect of a clinical pathway on the hospitalisation rates of children with asthma: a prospective study. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92(1):60-6. PMID:17297195 [SA]

Ansermino JM, Carleton BC. Primum non nocere (first do no harm): how do we improve patient safety? BC Med J. 2006:48(7);324-5. PMID:12101549 [SA]

Carleton BC, Smith MA. Drug safety: side effects and mistakes or adverse reactions and deadly errors? BC Med J. 2006;48(7):329-33. [SA]

Magee LA, Meremade S, Li J, Cheng C, Ensom MHH, Carleton BC, Côté A, von Dadelszen P. Therapy with both magnesium sulfate and nifedipine does not increase the risk of serious magnesium-related maternal side effects in women with preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193(1):153-63. PMID:16021073 [MC]

Etminan M, Carleton BC, Delaney JAC, Padwal R. [Author’s reply] Pharmacotherapy 2004 Nov; 24(11):1653. Lim LL, Kotsanas D, Ostergaard L, Woolley I. The use of antibiotics as secondary prevention for cardiac events. [Letter] Pharmacotherapy. 2004 Nov;24(11):1652. PMID:15537570 [MC]

Falk J, Carleton BC, Gerber P. Formulas containing live probiotic bacteria. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(3):783-4. PMID:15321825 [SA]

Etminan M, Carleton BC, Rochen PA. Quantifying adverse drug events: are systematic reviews the answer? Drug Saf. 2004;27(11):757-61. PMID:15350149 [SA]

Schneeweiss S, Maclure M, Carleton BC, Glynn RJ, Avorn J. Clinical and economic consequences of a reimbursement restriction of nebulised respiratory therapy in adults: direct comparison of randomised and observational evaluations. BMJ. 2004;328(7439):560-3. PMID:14982865 [PI] [SA]

Etminan M, Carleton BC, Delaney JAC, Padwal R. Macrolide therapy for Chlamydia pneumoniae in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(3):338-43. [MC]

Gelin MN, Carleton BC, Smith MA, Zumbo DB. The dimensionality and gender differential item functioning of the mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (miniAQLQ). Soc Indic Res. 2004;68(1):91-105. [PI] [SA]

Carleton BC, Lesko A, Milton J, Poole R. Active surveillance systems for pediatric adverse drug reactions: an idea whose time has come. Curr Ther Res. 2001;62:738-42. [SA]

Carleton BC, Primmett DRN. Recognizing idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in children: a practice imperative. Pediatr Child Health. 2001;6:187-9. PMID:20084233 [SA]

Carleton BC. From professional advocacy to patient advocacy: a gambit for pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2001;40:17-8. PMID:11216105

Maclure M, Carleton BC, Schneeweiss S. Effects and ethics of sanctions on childhood immunization rates. J Am Med Assoc. 2000;284:2056-7. PMID:11042749 [SA]

Mysak T, Carleton BC. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic differences between adults and pediatric patients: review and case examples. J Ped Phar Pract. 2000;5:274-82. [SA]

Carleton BC, Poole R, Milton J, Travis J, Grinder D. The pediatric adverse drug reaction reporting system. J Ped Phar Prac. 1999;4(6):284-307. [SA]

Carleton BC. Respiratory syncytial virus and asthma: is there a link? J Ped Phar Pract. 1999;4:6,9 (Editorial). PMID:9756195

Carleton BC, Levine ML, Primmett D, Sheppard I, Morris L, Tom K, McKerrow R. Repackaging G-CSF for patient safety and cost: a study of the sterility of the unit-dosing of G-CSF in syringes. J Ped Phar Pract. 1999;4(2):68-74. [PI] [SA]

Etminan M, Wright J, Carleton BC. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy: a review of basic concepts and applications in clinical practice. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32:1193-201. PMID:9825086 [SA]

McCormack JP, Cooper J, Carleton BC. Simple approach to dosage adjustments in patients with renal impairment. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1997;54:2505-9. PMID:9359960 [SA]

McCormack JP, Carleton BC. A simple approach to pharmacokinetic dosage adjustments. Pharmacotherapy. 1997;17(6):1349-51. [SA]

Brown TER, Glennie J, Carleton BC. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation of DNase use in cystic fibrosis. Canadian Collaborative Office of Health Technology Assessment (CCOHTA), Ottawa, Ontario 1996;1-52. [SA]

Carleton BC, Marra CA, Wu M, Brown L, McInnes D, McKerrow R. The pediatric health-related clinical research index: finding quality of life information for pediatric patients. J Ped Phar Pract. 1996;1(2):86-93. [SA]

Marra CA, Lynd L, McKerrow R, Carleton BC. Drug and poison information resources on the internet, part I: an introduction. Pharmacotherapy. 1996;16(4):537-46. PMID:8840360 [SA]

Marra CA, Carleton BC, Lynd L, Marra F, McDougal A, Chow D, McKerrow R. Drug and poison information resources on the internet, part II: identification and evaluation. Pharmacotherapy. 1996;16(5):806-18. PMID:8888076 [MC]

Marra CA, Levine M, McKerrow R, Carleton BC. Overview of health-related quality-of-life measures for pediatric patients: application in the assessment of pharmacotherapeutic and pharmacoeconomic outcomes. Pharmacotherapy. 1996;16:879-88. PMID:8888083 [SA]

Carleton BC. Are pharmacists going too far? Phar Prac. 1996;12:9 (Letter).

Carleton BC. Partnerships with physicians: tell them what you know, not what you think. Phar Prac. 1996;12:53-4.

Abdel-Wareth LO, Lirenman DS, Halstead AC, McLellan D, Carleton BC. Spurious rise in total carbon dioxide and chloride with negative anion gap after cystogram. Pediatr Nephrol. 1995;9(3):348-50. PMID:7632530 [CA]

Marra CA, Carleton BC, Basmadjian D, Levine M, McKerrow R. Cost of rhDNase in cystic fibrosis. [Letter] Ann Pharmacother. 1995;29:(10):1050-51. [SA]

Canafax DM, Graves NM, Hilligoss DM, Carleton BC, Matas AJ. Interaction between cyclosporine and fluconazole in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation. 1991;51(5):1014-18. PMID:2031258 [MC]

Carleton BC, Cipolle RJ, Larson SD, Canafax DM. A method for evaluating the drip rate accuracy of intravenous flow regulating devices. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1991;48:2422-26. PMID:1746576 [SA]

Erdmann GR, Steury JC, Carleton BC, Stafford RJ, Bostrom BC, Canafax DM. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography approach for determining total lymphocyte concentrations of 6-thioguanine, methylmercaptopurine and methylthioguanine. J Chromatogr. 1991;571:149-56. PMID:1810943 [MC]

Principal Investigator [PI]
Senior Author [SA]
Major Contributor [MC]
Contributing Author [CA]

Graduate Students
The UBC Pharmaceutical Outcomes Programme (POPi), under the leadership of Dr. Bruce Carleton, and based at the Child & Family Research Institute (CFRI) in Vancouver, BC is seeking excellent Graduate Student (M.Sc. & Ph.D.) and Post Doctoral Fellow candidates to be a part of our multi-disciplinary team in the areas of drug safety, drug effectiveness and drug policy.

As one of the leading research centers in Canada, trainees will be exposed to both the innovative research at the Child & Family Research Institute (CFRI) and the strong academic environment of the University of British Columbia. In these stimulating and complementary surroundings, trainees will have many opportunities for advancement and interdisciplinary professional development.

Applicants with a background in pharmacogenomics, clinical pharmacology, medical genetics, experimental medicine, pediatrics, pharmacoepidemiology, biostatistics, population health, pharmacy, medical anthropology, ethics or any other related fields are encouraged to apply. If interested, please submit a cover letter detailing research interests, curriculum vitae, writing sample and three references via email to Dr. Carleton.

Research Areas:
Drug Safety – Adverse Drug Reactions, Pharmacogenomics
Alarmingly less than 5% of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are reported to regulators, and equally alarming are estimates that more than 100,000 North Americans die from ADRs each year. ADRs are responsible for 10% of all hospital admissions, yet 95% are never reported to regulators. This lack of information on ADRs and drug safety is particularly significant for children, as more than 75% of all marketed drugs have never been clinically tested in children. The POPi led Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety (CPNDS) represents a transdisciplinary consortium of experts from hospitals, universities, research institutes and Health Canada. The goal of CPNDS is to prevent ADRs in childhood by identifying predictive genomic markers for specific ADRs through active surveillance. CPNDS aims to incorporate these markers into diagnostic tools that will be used to predict and prevent ADRs through specific dosing and alternative therapeutic recommendations for commonly used drugs.

Drug Effectiveness – Outcomes Research, Clinical Pharmacology & Drug Policy, Health Services Research, Drug Policy Evaluation
Public demand and the supply of new pharmaceuticals continue to grow, but government resources for drug benefit insurance can no longer keep pace. Drug budgets in hospitals, provincial and private formularies continue to be the most rapid area of cost growth in healthcare budgets. The aim of POPi’s drug effectiveness and policy research is to stimulate policy innovation through proactive research, training and knowledge translation on the effectiveness cost management and optimization of prescription drug outcomes. The conduct of randomized policy trials and pharmacoepidemiologic research with British Columbia’s population health datasets are key components of POPi’s program of research in this area.

Current Projects:
Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety (CPNDS) – Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR), Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), Genome British Columbia
The goal of CPNDS is to prevent ADRs in children and adults by identifying predictive genomic markers for specific ADRs. This includes incorporating these markers into diagnostic tools that will be used to predict and prevent ADRs through specific therapeutic recommendations based on an individual’s genetic profile. Another long-term goal for this project is to continue the development of a user-friendly, and effective ADR monitoring system and national database of anonymized ADR information.

Drug Safety and Effectiveness Team Grant; Active Surveillance and Evaluation of Adverse Reactions in Canada (SEARCH) – Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR)
The DSEN-SEARCH team builds upon and expands a unique interdisciplinary team of health care providers, government officials and scientists who have worked together for nearly a decade to develop an active surveillance collaborative that is world-renowned. The first active surveillance project conducted by SEARCH will investigate the safety of inhaled corticosteroids in children and pregnant women using hair cortisol analysis as well as a genome-wide scan.

Drug Safety and Effectiveness Team Grant; Pharmacogenomics of Adverse Reaction Events National (PREVENT) – Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR)
The DSEN-PREVENT team will conduct pioneering and transformative research to identify genetic factors of priority ADRs identified by the DSEN Steering Committee. The first project will further refine the known markers of anthracycline-cardiotoxicity by utilizing our latest genomic panel of drug toxicity-related genes.

Pharmacogenetic Clinical Practice Guidelines – Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR)
Clinical practice guidelines for pharmacogenetic testing are urgently needed for clinical care. We are developing rigorous and practical guidelines to allow clinicians to make better informed choices about drug therapy for patients. We have started this process by developing clinical practice guidelines for six drugs: cisplatin, anthracyclines, carbamazepine, warfarin, codeine and tamoxifen

Implementation of a Pharmacogenetic ADR Prevention Program in BC – Genome British Columbia (GBC), Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA), Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) This two year pilot project in BC will help develop an understanding of how best to use genetic markers to improve the safe use of drugs in patients. We are beginning our work with two pharmacogenetic tests designed to prevent cisplatin-induced hearing loss and anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. We are studying how the test results are utilized and understood by both clinicians and patients, before and after testing. We are evaluating the economic burden of these ADRs and the cost-effectiveness of the pharmacogenetic tests.

Reducing the Acute Care Burden of Childhood Asthma on Health Services in British Columbia – Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Partnership for Health Systems Improvement (PHSI)
This research details the burden of asthma in British Columbia (BC) using health care utilization data and will establish that a simple and effective health system strategy for asthma management can be readily implemented in primary care and hospital settings, in order to reduce future severe exacerbations. The information obtained through this work will be used to develop a knowledge translation strategy to help us reach our overall goal, which is to arm clinicians, parents and decision makers with the necessary information and strategic guidance to implement a simple health system change, in order to improve the care of children with repeated asthma exacerbations.

Therapeutic Evaluation Unit (TEU) – Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA).
The TEU conducts population therapeutics translational research in order to improve the effective, safe and cost-effective use of drugs in patients within the PHSA. Current projects include: hemoglobin A1C testing frequency and patient outcome, safety of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular and ocular adverse events of bevacizumab and ranibizumab in patients with acute macular degeneration, and many other translational health projects.